Trading off the Income Gains and the Inequality Costs of Trade Policy (English)

权衡收入增加和贸易政策的不平等成本

2019/04/15 21:42
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对照中文英文原文
权衡收入增加和贸易政策的不平等成本(英语)

ABSTRACT

摘要

This paper characterizes the trade-off between the income gains and the inequality costs of trade using survey data for 54 developing countries. Tariff data on agricultural and manufacturing goods are combined with household survey data on detailed income and expenditure patterns to estimate the first-order effects of the elimination of import tariffs on household welfare. The paper assesses how these welfare effects vary across the distribution by estimating impacts on the consumption of traded goods, wage income, farm and non-farm family enterprise income, and government transfers. For each country, the income gains and the inequality costs of trade liberalization are quantified and the trade-offs between them are assessed using an Atkinson social welfare index. The analysis finds average income gains from import tariff liberalization in 45 countries and average income losses in nine countries. Across countries in the sample, the gains from trade are 1.9 percent of real household expenditure on average. We find overwhelming evidence of a trade-off between the income gains (losses) and the inequality costs (gains), which arise because trade tends to exacerbate income inequality: 45 countries face a trade-off, while only nine do not. The income gains typically more than offset the increase in inequality. In the majority of developing countries, the prevailing tariff structure thus induces sizable welfare losses.

本文使用54个发展中国家的调查数据来描述收入增长与贸易不平等成本之间的权衡。本文将关于农业和制成品的关税数据与详细的收入和支出模式的住户调查数据相结合,以估计取消进口关税对家庭福利的一阶效应,并通过估算对贸易商品消费,工资收入,农场和非农业家庭企业收入以及政府转移的影响来评估这些福利效应如何在分布中变化。对于每个国家,本文对贸易自由化的收入增长和不平等成本进行量化、并使用阿特金森社会福利指数评估它们之间的权衡。研究发现,45个进口关税自由化的国家平均收入增加,9个国家的平均收入减少。在样本中的国家中,贸易收益平均为实际家庭支出的1.9%。压倒性的证据表明收入增长(减少)与不平等成本(收益)之间存在权衡,因为贸易往往会加剧收入不平等:45个国家面临权衡,而只有9个国家没有。收入增加通常抵消了不平等的增加。在大多数发展中国家,现行的关税结构因此造成了相当大的福利损失。

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