A Changing World: Global Views on Diversity, Gender Equality, Family Life and the Importance of Religion

变化的世界:关于多样性,性别平等,家庭生活和宗教重要性的全球观点

2019/04/23 04:59
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对照中文英文原文
人们看到他们国家的多样性和性别平等日益增加,但他们认为家庭关系已经减弱。关于宗教重要性的观点差异很大。

People see more diversity and gender equality happening but say family ties have weakened

人们看到更多的多样性和性别平等发生,但说家庭关系已经削弱

Is diversity on the rise? Has gender equality increased? Does religion play a more or less important role than in the past? And are family ties stronger or weaker than they used to be? Pew Research Center posed these questions to 30,133 people in 27 countries.

多样性正在上升吗?性别平等有所增加吗?宗教是否比过去更重要或更不重要?家庭关系是否比过去更强或更弱?皮尤研究中心向27个国家的30,133人提出了这些问题。

The results are clear on three of these aspects. Medians of around seven-in-ten say their countries have become more diverse and that gender equality has increased over the past 20 years. And roughly six-in-ten across the countries surveyed say that family ties have weakened.

其中三个方面的结果很清楚。大约七分之一的中位数人士表示,他们的国家变得更加多元化,在过去的20年里,性别平等有所增加。在接受调查的国家中,大约六分之一的人表示家庭关系已经减弱。

On the importance of religion, there is more variation by country. Overall, a median of 37% say that religion plays a less important role in their countries than it did 20 years ago, while 27% say it plays a more important role.

关于宗教的重要性,各国的变化更多。总体而言,37%的中位数表示宗教在他们的国家中扮演的角色不像20年前那么重要,而27%的人认为宗教扮演着更重要的角色。

For all four questions, a sizable portion of the population (about one-in-five) say there has been no change over the past two decades.

对于所有四个问题,相当一部分人口(约五分之一)表示在过去二十年中没有任何变化。

These questions measure whether people perceive change. But how do people feel about social and cultural change itself?

这些问题衡量人们是否认识到变化。但人们如何看待社会和文化变革呢?

To better understand this, we added a follow-up to our initial questions on diversity, gender equality, family ties and religion: Is this a good or bad thing for the country? To accurately classify these responses, we took people who said there was an increase (for example in diversity) and that this was a good thing, and then combined them with people who said diversity had decreased and they felt this was bad. On the other side, we combined people who said there was an increase and that it was bad with those who saw a decrease in diversity and thought it was good for society.

为了更好地理解这一点,我们对我们关于多样性,性别平等,家庭关系和宗教的初步问题进行了后续跟进:这对国家来说是好事还是坏事?为了准确地对这些反应进行分类,我们采取了那些说有增加的人(例如在多样性方面)并且这是一件好事,然后将他们与那些说多样性减少并认为这很糟糕的人合并。另一方面,我们结合了那些说有增加的人和那些看到多样性减少并认为对社会有益的人。

This allowed us to gauge support for increasing or decreasing diversity, gender equality and a more important role for religion in their countries. Since large majorities in most countries told us that family ties were weakening and that it was a bad thing, we did not do this analysis on that question.

这使我们能够衡量对增加或减少多样性,性别平等以及宗教在其国家中发挥更重要作用的支持。由于大多数国家的大多数人告诉我们家庭关系正在减弱,这是一件坏事,我们没有对这个问题进行分析。

One difficulty in the way this question was constructed and analyzed is that people who say that there has been no change in their country on the various issues are kept in the “no change” column for the follow-up analysis. So, for those who have perceived no change – and thus, no effect from change – it’s hard to determine whether they think the status quo is good because there has not been societal change, or bad because society has not changed enough.

构建和分析这个问题的一个难点是,那些说他们的国家在各种问题上没有变化的人被保留在后续分析的“无变化”栏中。因此,对于那些没有感觉到变化的人 - 因此没有变化的影响 - 很难确定他们是否认为现状是好的,因为没有社会变化,或者因为社会没有足够的变化而变坏。

The results of this analysis reveal people are strongly in favor of increased gender equality but share more tepid enthusiasm for increased ethnic, religious and racial diversity. And despite secularization trends, most across the 27 countries surveyed do not oppose a more important role for religion in their society.

这项分析的结果表明,人们强烈支持增加性别平等,但对种族,宗教和种族多样性的增加有着更为温和的热情。尽管世俗化趋势,在接受调查的27个国家中,大多数国家并不反对宗教在社会中发挥更重要的作用。

In addition, roughly half or more in 24 of the countries surveyed say that family ties are weakening, and in all those countries at least half say that this is a bad thing. In Indonesia and the Philippines, people think family ties are strengthening and that this is a good thing. Nigerians are divided on the state of family ties in their country.

此外,在接受调查的24个国家中,约有一半或更多人表示家庭关系正在减弱,而在所有这些国家中,至少有一半国家表示这是一件坏事。在印度尼西亚和菲律宾,人们认为家庭关系正在加强,这是一件好事。尼日利亚人对他们国家的家庭关系状况存在分歧。

Pew Research Center’s research on globalization and cultural change

皮尤研究中心对全球化和文化变革的研究

Pew Research Center has been researching the concept of cultural change for almost two decades. In 2002, the first 44-nation Global Attitudes Survey was primarily focused on the concept of “globalization” and how that impacts people’s lives in countries around the world. Back then, at a time when rapid technological advances were starting to make their way across the globe and interconnectedness was becoming a fact of life, people were positive about many of the economic and cultural changes that were taking place. And young people were especially keen on globalization.

皮尤研究中心近二十年来一直在研究文化变革的概念。 2002年,第一个44个国家的全球态度调查主要关注“全球化”概念以及它如何影响全世界各国人民的生活。当时,在快速的技术进步开始跨越全球并且相互关联成为生活现实的时代,人们对正在发生的许多经济和文化变革持积极态度。年轻人特别热衷于全球化。

In 2007, the Center again embarked on a study about globalization and its effects in a survey of 47 nations. As in 2002, we saw widespread support for the economic benefits of globalization, including trade and free markets. But these results were tempered by concerns about the downsides of such rapid change. “There are widely shared concerns about the free flow of people, ideas and resources that globalization entails. In nearly every country surveyed, people worry about losing their traditional culture and national identities, and they feel their way of life needs protection against foreign influences. Importantly, the poll finds widespread concerns about immigration. … Those who worry the most about immigration also tend to see the greatest need for protecting traditional ways of life against foreign influences.”

2007年,该中心在47个国家的调查中再次开展了一项关于全球化及其影响的研究。与2002年一样,我们看到广泛支持全球化的经济利益,包括贸易和自由市场。但是,这些结果因对这种快速变化的不利因素的担忧而受到抑制。 “人们普遍担心全球化带来的人员,思想和资源的自由流动。在几乎所有接受调查的国家中,人们都担心失去传统文化和民族身份,他们觉得自己的生活方式需要保护免受外来影响。重要的是,民意调查发现人们普遍担心移民问题。 ......那些最关心移民问题的人也往往认为最需要保护传统生活方式免受外来影响。“

The survey also found “egalitarian” views about gender roles in terms of equal education for boys and girls and female political leadership. In 2010, a follow-up study in 22 nations suggested that people around the world still believed that women should have equal rights to men and that boys should not have preferential treatment in pursuing higher education. However, in many countries people acknowledged that gender inequality still existed and that men often had better lives than women.

调查还发现,在男女平等教育和女性政治领导方面,性别角色的“平等主义”观点。 2010年,22个国家的一项后续研究表明,世界各地的人们仍然认为女性应享有与男性平等的权利,男孩在接受高等教育时不应享受优惠待遇。然而,在许多国家,人们承认性别不平等仍然存在,男性的生活往往比女性更好。

By 2013, the Center was keen on exploring questions about diversity, morality and acceptance of minorities to help better understand the changing nature of global culture. Here, there were some stark reminders that huge divides still existed between countries with more advanced economies and those still emerging and developing. For example, on the topic of gay rights, the 2013 survey in 39 countries showed massive differences between the 88% acceptance of homosexuality in Spain and the 1% acceptance in Nigeria. And on a host of other questions about values, such as alcohol use and divorce, there were stark divides between those in countries with a strong affinity for religion and those where religion has become less important. But the West was certainly not free of doubts about diversity and the effects of cultural change on their countries.

到2013年,该中心热衷于探索有关多样性,道德和接纳少数群体的问题,以帮助更好地了解全球文化不断变化的本质。在这里,有一些明显的提醒,经济较发达的国家和仍在兴起和发展的国家之间仍然存在着巨大的分歧。例如,关于同性恋权利的主题,2013年在39个国家进行的调查显示,西班牙同性恋接受率为88%,尼日利亚接受同性恋接受率为1%。关于价值观的其他许多问题,例如酒精使用和离婚,在那些对宗教有强烈亲和力的国家和宗教信仰不那么重要的国家之间存在着明显的分歧。但西方当然不会对多样性和文化变革对其国家的影响产生怀疑。

In 2015, a massive influx of refugees from the Middle East and North Africa poured into Europe, causing substantial rifts among many political coalitions in prominent European countries. By 2016, the Center was tracking both attitudes toward the government’s response to the refugee crisis and overall views of diversity and immigration. On both counts, Europeans questioned their government’s handling of the refugee issue (and the European Union’s) and expressed concerns about growing diversity in their countries.

2015年,来自中东和北非的大量难民涌入欧洲,导致欧洲着名国家的许多政治联盟出现大幅分歧。到2016年,该中心正在追踪对政府应对难民危机的态度以及对多样性和移民的整体看法。在这两方面,欧洲人质疑他们的政府对难民问题(以及欧盟的问题)的处理,并对他们国家日益多样化的问题表示担忧。

We continue to explore key aspects of globalization and its economic effects in the present day. In 2018, we again found that people like the concept of free trade but are not wholly convinced of its benefits. In addition, when asked about the financial situation of average people in their country, many say that average people are worse off compared with 20 years ago.

我们继续探索当今全球化及其经济影响的关键方面。在2018年,我们再次发现人们喜欢自由贸易的概念,但并不完全相信它的好处。此外,当被问及他们国家普通人的财务状况时,许多人说普通人比20年前更糟糕。

On the concept of the importance of religion among the world’s population, a 2018 analysis of 106 countries demonstrates that people are generally more religious in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and Latin America, and generally less religious in Europe, North America, East Asia and Australia. This helps explain some of the variation on whether the changing importance of religion is a good thing or bad thing in the current study.

关于宗教在世界人口中的重要性的概念,2018年对106个国家的分析表明,人们在非洲,中东,南亚和拉丁美洲一般更具宗教信仰,而且在欧洲,北美,东方的宗教信仰普遍较少亚洲和澳大利亚。这有助于解释在当前研究中宗教的重要性变化是好事还是坏事的一些变化。

In sum, the concept of globalization is one that will continue to be reflected in our research as we try to understand public opinion in an ever-changing world. This study seeks to answer just a small part of that change, which will engage researchers for years to come.

总而言之,全球化的概念将继续反映在我们的研究中,因为我们试图在不断变化的世界中理解公众舆论。本研究旨在回答这一变化的一小部分,这将使研究人员在未来几年内参与进来。

Views of diversity in North America, Europe and Australia

北美,欧洲和澳大利亚的多样性观点

Across Europe, North America and Australia, there is strong consensus that diversity has increased in their countries. And for the most part, that diversity is welcomed. Two exceptions are Greece, where 62% oppose a more diverse country, and to a lesser extent Italy, where 45% oppose diversity. But in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Australia and Spain, roughly six-in-ten say they are in favor of more diversity.

在整个欧洲,北美和澳大利亚,人们普遍认为各国的多样性有所增加。在大多数情况下,这种多样性受到欢迎。两个例外是希腊,其中62%反对更多样化的国家,而较小程度上意大利,其中45%反对多样性。但在英国,加拿大,美国,澳大利亚和西班牙,大约六分之一的人表示他们赞成更多样化。

There are divides, however, within countries across a variety of demographic and political groups. In Europe, North America and Australia, people who are more in favor of diversity tend to be younger, have more education and place themselves on the left end of the political spectrum.

然而,在各种人口和政治团体的国家内存在分歧。在欧洲,北美和澳大利亚,更倾向于多元化的人往往更年轻,接受更多教育并将自己置于政治光谱的左端。

In several European countries, people with favorable opinions of right-wing, anti-immigration parties are more opposed to increased diversity in their country. For example, those that have a favorable view of the Sweden Democrats are roughly three times less likely to favor more diversity than are those who have an unfavorable view of this party. Similar differences appear between supporters and nonsupporters of AfD in Germany, PVV in the Netherlands, UKIP in the UK and National Rally (formerly National Front) in France. (See Chapter 1 for more information.)

在一些欧洲国家,对右翼,反移民政党有良好意见的人更反对他们国家的多样性增加。例如,那些对瑞典民主党有好感的人比那些对这个党有不利看法的人更倾向于支持更多的多样性。德国的AfD,荷兰的PVV,英国的UKIP和法国的国家拉力赛(前国家阵线)的支持者和非支持者之间也存在类似的差异。 (有关详细信息,请参阅第1章。)

Men are more likely than women to say gender equality has increased

男性比女性更有可能说性别平等有所增加

In many of the countries surveyed, men are more likely than women to say that gender equality has increased in their country over the past 20 years.

在接受调查的许多国家中,男性比女性更有可能说过去20年来他们的国家性别平等有所增加。

For example, 78% of German men say that gender equality has increased over the past 20 years, versus only 62% of women. Double-digit differences also occur in Japan, the UK, Canada, South Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, the U.S., Sweden and Kenya.

例如,78%的德国男性表示,在过去20年中,性别平等有所增加,而女性只有62%。日本,英国,加拿大,韩国,荷兰,西班牙,美国,瑞典和肯尼亚也出现两位数的差异。

However, women are also more likely than men to say that there has been no change in gender equality in their countries over the past 20 years. This is true in 11 of the countries surveyed.

然而,在过去20年中,女性比男性更有可能说她们国家的性别平等没有变化。在接受调查的11个国家中都是如此。

Desire for an increasing role for religion is linked to religious salience

对宗教角色日益增加的渴望与宗教显着性有关

Opinions vary widely across the countries surveyed on whether religion plays a more or less important role compared with 20 years ago. Those saying religion is more important ranges from 7% in Spain and 8% in Japan to 83% in Indonesia and 65% in Nigeria.

在接受调查的国家中,与20年前相比,宗教是否起着或多或少的重要作用,各种意见差异很大。那些说宗教的人更重要,从西班牙的7%和日本的8%到印度尼西亚的83%和尼日利亚的65%。

But overall, there is a strong correlation between those who see religion’s role in society growing and those who think religion is very important in their lives (+0.73).

但总体而言,那些认为宗教在社会中成长的人与那些认为宗教在他们生活中非常重要的人之间存在着强烈的相关性(+0.73)。

Spotlight on the role of ideology in favoring more religion in society

聚焦意识形态在支持社会更多宗教方面的作用

In Europe, North America and Australia, ideology is linked to whether people want a more prominent role for religion in their country. For example, in the U.S., people on the right end of the political spectrum (those who consider themselves somewhat or very conservative) are 42 percentage points more likely than those on the left to favor a larger role for religion in their country. While this is the largest political divide measured, substantial differences exist between left and right in many countries.

在欧洲,北美和澳大利亚,意识形态与人们是否希望在他们的国家中更重要的宗教角色有关。例如,在美国,处于政治光谱右端的人(那些认为自己有些或非常保守的人)比左翼人更有可能比他们国家更大的宗教角色高42个百分点。虽然这是衡量的最大政治鸿沟,但许多国家左右之间存在巨大差异。

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