Race in America 2019

美国的种族概况

2019/04/09 23:38
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大多数美国人(65%) - 包括种族和族裔群体中的大多数人 - 表示,自特朗普当选总统以来,人们更多地表达种族主义或种族不敏感的观点。

Public has negative views of the country’s racial progress; more than half say Trump has made race relations worse

公众对该国的种族进步持负面看法;超过一半的人说特朗普让种族关系变得更糟

(iStock photo)

(iStock照片)

More than 150 years after the 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the United States, most U.S. adults say the legacy of slavery continues to have an impact on the position of black people in American society today. More than four-in-ten say the country hasn’t made enough progress toward racial equality, and there is some skepticism, particularly among blacks, that black people will ever have equal rights with whites, according to a new Pew Research Center survey.

在第13修正案废除了美国的奴隶制150多年后,大多数美国成年人说奴隶制的遗产继续影响着当今美国社会中黑人的地位。根据皮尤研究中心的一项新调查显示,超过四分之一的人表示,该国在种族平等问题上没有取得足够的进展,并且有一些人怀疑,特别是在黑人中,黑人与白人有平等的权利。

Opinions about the current state of race relations – and President Donald Trump’s handling of the issue – are also negative. About six-in-ten Americans (58%) say race relations in the U.S. are bad, and of those, few see them improving. Some 56% think the president has made race relations worse; just 15% say he has improved race relations and another 13% say he has tried but failed to make progress on this issue. In addition, roughly two-thirds say it’s become more common for people to express racist views since Trump became president.

关于当前种族关系状况的看法 - 以及唐纳德特朗普总统处理这个问题 - 也是消极的。大约六分之一的美国人(58%)表示美国的种族关系很糟糕,其中很少有人认为他们有所改善。约56%的人认为总统使种族关系恶化;只有15%的人表示他已经改善了种族关系,另有13%的人表示他已经尝试但未能在这个问题上取得进展。此外,大约三分之二的人表示,自特朗普担任总统以来,人们更多地表达种族主义观点。

Blacks are particularly gloomy about the country’s racial progress. More than eight-in-ten black adults say the legacy of slavery affects the position of black people in America today, including 59% who say it affects it a great deal. About eight-in-ten blacks (78%) say the country hasn’t gone far enough when it comes to giving black people equal rights with whites, and fully half say it’s unlikely that the country will eventually achieve racial equality.

黑人对该国的种族进步特别悲观。十分之八以上的黑人成年人表示,奴隶制的遗产影响了今天美国黑人的地位,其中59%的人认为这对黑人影响很大。大约八分之一的黑人(78%)表示,在为黑人提供与白人平等的权利方面,这个国家还远远不够,而且有一半人说这个国家不太可能最终实现种族平等。

Americans see disadvantages for blacks and Hispanics in the U.S. A majority of all adults (56%) say being black hurts people’s ability to get ahead at least a little, and 51% say the same about being Hispanic. In contrast, 59% say being white helps people’s ability to get ahead. Views about the impact of being Asian or Native American are more mixed.

美国人看到美国黑人和西班牙裔美国人的不利因素大多数成年人(56%)认为黑人会伤害人们至少获得一点点的能力,而51%的人说同样是西班牙裔美国人。相比之下,59%的人认为白人有助于人们获得成功。关于亚洲人或美洲原住民的影响的观点更为复杂。

Blacks, Hispanics and Asians are more likely than whites to say being white helps people’s ability to get ahead at least a little. Among whites, those who are more educated, as well as those who identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party, are particularly likely to see advantages to being white.

黑人,西班牙裔和亚洲人比白人更有可能说白人帮助人们至少获得一点成功的能力。在白人中,那些受过更多教育的人,以及那些认同或倾向民主党的人,特别有可能看到白人的优势。

The nationally representative survey of 6,637 adults was conducted online Jan. 22-Feb. 5, 2019, in English and Spanish, using Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel. In addition to exploring the public’s views about the state of race relations and racial inequality in America, the survey also looks at personal experiences with racial and ethnic discrimination and the role race plays in people’s lives. Among the report’s key findings:

全国代表性的6,637名成年人调查于1月22日至2月在线进行。 5,2019年,英语和西班牙语,使用皮尤研究中心的美国趋势专家组。除了探讨公众对美国种族关系和种族不平等现状的看法之外,该调查还研究了种族和民族歧视的个人经历以及种族在人们生活中的作用。在报告的主要发现中:

Most Americans say it’s now more common for people to express racist or racially insensitive views; more than four-in-ten say it’s more acceptable

大多数美国人说,现在人们更多地表达种族主义或种族不敏感的观点;超过四分之一的人说它更容易接受

Most Americans (65%) – including majorities across racial and ethnic groups – say it has become more common for people to express racist or racially insensitive views since Trump was elected president. A smaller but substantial share (45%) say this has become more acceptable.

大多数美国人(65%) - 包括种族和族裔群体中的大多数人 - 表示,自特朗普当选总统以来,人们更多地表达种族主义或种族不敏感的观点。较小但相当大的份额(45%)表示这已经变得更加可以接受了。

Democrats and those who lean Democratic are more likely than Republicans and Republican leaners to say it has become more common and more acceptable for people to express racist and racially insensitive views since Trump was elected president. Among Democrats, 84% say this is now more common and 64% say it’s more acceptable; fewer than half of Republicans say it has become more common (42%) and just 22% say it has become more acceptable for people to express these types of views.

自从特朗普当选总统以来,民主党人和那些倾向于民主党的人比共和党人和共和党人更倾向于说人们表达种族主义和种族不敏感的观点已经变得更加普遍和更容易接受。在民主党人中,84%的人表示现在这种情况更为普遍,64%的人表示这更为普遍;不到一半的共和党人表示它已经变得更加普遍(42%),只有22%的人表示人们更容易接受这些观点。

Views of Trump’s handling of race relations are far more negative than views of how Obama handled the issue

特朗普处理种族关系的观点远比奥巴马处理这一问题的观点更为消极

A majority of Americans (56%) say Trump has made race relations worse; just 15% say he has made progress toward improving race relations, while 13% say he has tried but failed to make progress and 14% say he hasn’t addressed this issue. In contrast, 37% say Barack Obama made progress on race relations when he was president, and 27% say he tried but failed. A quarter of Americans say Obama made race relations worse. These retrospective views of Obama’s handling of race relations are nearly identical to views expressed during Obama’s last year in office.

大多数美国人(56%)认为特朗普使种族关系恶化;只有15%的人表示他在改善种族关系方面取得了进展,而13%的人表示他已经尝试但未能取得进展,14%的人表示他没有解决这个问题。相比之下,37%的人表示巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)在担任总统期间在种族关系方面取得了进四分之一的美国人说奥巴马使种族关系恶化。奥巴马处理种族关系的这些回顾性观点几乎与奥巴马去年任职期间表达的观点相同。

Not surprisingly, assessments of Trump’s and Obama’s handling of race relations differ considerably along partisan lines. Democrats overwhelmingly say Trump has made race relations worse (84%), including large shares of black (79%) and white (86%) Democrats. Views are more divided among Republicans. About a third of Republicans (34%) say Trump has improved race relations and 25% say he has tried but failed to make progress; 19% of Republicans say he hasn’t addressed the issue, while 20% say he has made race relations worse.

毫不奇怪,对特朗普和奥巴马处理种族关系的评估在党派界线上存在很大差异。民主党人绝大多数表示,特朗普使种族关系恶化(84%),其中包括大部分黑人(79%)和白人(86%)民主党人。共和党人的观点更加分歧。大约三分之一的共和党人(34%)表示特朗普改善了种族关系,25%的人表示他曾尝试但未能取得进展; 19%的共和党人表示他没有解决这个问题,而20%的人说他使种族关系变得更糟。

When it comes to views of Obama’s handling of race relations, 55% of Democrats say he improved race relations during his presidency; just 8% say he made things worse. In contrast, 51% of Republicans say Obama made race relations worse, while 14% say he made progress toward improving it. As is the case with views of Trump’s handling of race relations, white and black Democrats offer somewhat similar assessments of how Obama handled this issue when he was president.

当谈到奥巴马处理种族关系的观点时,55%的民主党人表示他在担任总统期间改善了种族关系;只有8%的人说他让事情变得更糟。相比之下,51%的共和党人表示奥巴马使种族关系恶化,而14%的人表示他在改善种族关系方面取得了进展。就特朗普处理种族关系的观点而言,白人和黑人民主党人对奥巴马在担任总统期间如何处理这一问题提供了类似的评估。

Republicans and Democrats have vastly different views on race

共和党人和民主党人对种族有着截然不同的看法

In addition to being linked to views of Trump’s handling of race relations, partisanship is strongly associated with racial attitudes more broadly. In fact, after controlling for other factors, partisanship has a greater association with views about the country’s racial progress than demographic factors, though being young and more educated are also significant predictors, particularly among whites.

除了与特朗普处理种族关系的观点有关外,党派关系更广泛地与种族态度密切相关。事实上,在控制其他因素之后,党派关系与对国家种族进步的看法有更大的联系,而不是人口因素,尽管年轻和受过更多教育也是重要的预测因素,尤其是白人。

Because whites and nonwhites often have widely different views of racial issues, and nonwhites disproportionately identify with or lean to the Democratic Party, gaps between Republicans and Democrats are often shown among whites in this report in order to account for differences in the racial composition of the two parties.

由于白人和非白人通常对种族问题有着截然不同的看法,而非白人与民主党不成比例地认同或倾向于民主党,因此本报告中白人和民主党之间的差距经常出现在白人之间,以解释种族构成的差异。两党。

White Democrats (64%) are far more likely than white Republicans (15%) to say the country hasn’t gone far enough when it comes to giving black people equal rights with whites. About half of Republicans say it’s been about right, while a sizable minority (31%) says the country has gone too far in this regard.

白人民主党人(64%)比白人共和党人(15%)更有可能说这个国家在给予黑人与白人平等权利方面还远远不够。大约一半的共和党人表示这是正确的,而相当大的少数民族(31%)表示该国在这方面走得太远。

Eight-in-ten white Democrats – vs. 40% of white Republicans – say the legacy of slavery continues to have an impact on black people’s position in American society today. And when it comes to views about racial discrimination, 78% of white Democrats say the bigger problem is people not seeing it where it really does exist, while a similar share of white Republicans say people seeing racial discrimination where it really does not exist is the bigger problem.

十分之八的白人民主党人 - 相对于40%的白人共和党人 - 说奴隶制的遗产继续对黑人在当今美国社会中的地位产生影响。当涉及到种族歧视的观点时,78%的白人民主党人表示,更大的问题是人们没有看到它确实存在的地方,而相似的白人共和党人说,人们看到种族歧视确实不存在的是更大的问题。

Blacks are more likely than other groups to say their race has had a negative impact on their ability to get ahead; whites are the most likely to say their race helped them

黑人比其他群体更有可能说他们的种族对他们获胜的能力产生了负面影响;白人最有可能说他们的种族帮助了他们

About half of black adults (52%) say being black has hurt their ability to get ahead at least a little, with 18% saying it has hurt a lot. About a quarter of Hispanics and Asians (24% each) and just 5% of whites say their race or ethnicity has had a negative impact. In turn, whites are more likely than other groups to say their racial background has helped them at least a little.

大约一半的黑人成年人(52%)表示,黑人已经伤害了他们至少获得一点成功的能力,18%的人表示伤害很多。大约四分之一的西班牙裔和亚洲人(各占24%),只有5%的白人表示他们的种族或族裔有负面影响。反过来,白人比其他群体更有可能说他们的种族背景至少对他们有所帮助。

Among blacks, those with at least some college experience are more likely than those with less education to say being black has hurt their ability to get ahead.

在黑人中,那些至少有一些大学经历的人比那些受教育程度较低的人更有可能说黑人伤害了他们获得成功的能力。

Education is also linked with whites’ perceptions of the impact their race has had on their ability to get ahead. Small shares of whites across educational levels say their racial background has hurt their ability to succeed, but those with a bachelor’s degree are more likely than those with less education to say being white helped them at least a little.

教育也与白人对种族对其获得成功的能力的影响有关。在教育层面上,白人的小份额表示他们的种族背景已经损害了他们的成功能力,但是那些拥有学士学位的人比那些受教育程度较低的人更有可能说白人帮助他们至少一点点。

Across all racial and ethnic groups, more point to their own hard work than to any other attribute, including their race, their gender, the people they know or their family’s financial situation, as something that helped them get ahead.

在所有种族和民族群体中,更多地指出他们自己的辛勤工作,而不是任何其他属性,包括他们的种族,性别,他们认识的人或他们家庭的经济状况,以及帮助他们取得成功的事情。

Blacks, whites differ in assessments of why it may be harder for black people to get ahead

黑人,白人在评估为什么黑人可能难以获胜方面存在差异

Whether or not they see their race as an obstacle for them personally, about two-thirds of blacks (68%) say being black generally hurts a person’s ability to get ahead in the country; 55% of whites say the same.

无论他们是否将自己的种族视为个人的障碍,大约三分之二的黑人(68%)认为黑人一般会伤害一个人在国内取得成功的能力; 55%的白人说同样的话。

Among those who say being black hurts a person’s ability to get ahead, blacks are far more likely than whites to point to racial discrimination, less access to high-paying jobs and less access to good schools as major reasons why this is the case. In turn, whites are more likely than blacks to point to family instability and lack of good role models as major obstacles for black people. The same shares in both groups (22%) say a lack of motivation to work hard is to blame.

在那些说黑人伤害一个人获胜的能力的人中,黑人比白人更有可能指向种族歧视,更少有机会获得高薪工作,更少有机会进入好学校,这是造成这种情况的主要原因。反过来,白人比黑人更有可能指出家庭不稳定和缺乏良好的榜样作为黑人的主要障碍。两组中相同的份额(22%)表示缺乏努力工作的动机是罪魁祸首。

There are wide partisan gaps in these views. Most white Democrats who say being black hurts a person’s ability to succeed point to racial discrimination (70%) and less access to good schools (75%) or high-paying jobs (64%) as major reasons for this (among black Democrats, the shares are 86%, 74% and 78%, respectively). By comparison, about a third or fewer white Republicans say these are major obstacles for blacks. White Republicans are more likely than white Democrats to cite family instability, lack of good role models and a lack of motivation to work hard.

这些观点存在广泛的党派差距。大多数白人民主党人认为黑人会伤害一个人的成功能力,这会导致种族歧视(70%)和较少获得良好学校(75%)或高薪工作(64%)的主要原因(黑人民主党人,股票分别为86%,74%和78%。相比之下,大约三分之一或更少的白人共和党人说这些是黑人的主要障碍。白人共和党人比白人民主党更有可能引用家庭不稳定,缺乏良好的榜样以及缺乏努力工作的动力。

Majorities of black and white adults say blacks are treated less fairly than whites in dealing with police and by the criminal justice system

大多数黑人和白人都表示黑人在与警方和刑事司法系统打交道时的待遇不如白人

Black and white adults have widely different perceptions of how blacks are treated in America, but majorities of both groups say blacks are treated less fairly than whites by the criminal justice system (87% of blacks vs. 61% of whites) and in dealing with police (84% vs. 63%, respectively).

黑人和白人对美国黑人的治疗方式有着截然不同的看法,但两个群体中的大多数人认为,黑人的待遇不如白人受到刑事司法系统(87%的黑人与61%的白人)和白人的待遇。警察(分别为84%和63%)。

About six-in-ten blacks or more – but fewer than half of whites – say blacks are treated less fairly than whites in hiring, pay and promotions; when applying for a loan or mortgage; in stores or restaurants; when voting in elections; and when seeking medical treatment. In each of these realms, whites tend to say blacks and whites are treated about equally; very small shares say whites are treated less fairly than blacks.

大约六分之一的黑人或更多 - 但不到一半的白人 - 说黑人在招聘,薪酬和晋升方面的待遇低于白人;申请贷款或抵押时;在商店或餐馆;在选举中投票;并在寻求医疗时。在这些领域中,白人倾向于说黑人和白人被平等对待;非常小的股票表示,白人的待遇不如黑人。

Across these different areas, there are gaps ranging from 39 to 53 percentage points in how white Democrats and white Republicans see the treatment of blacks in the U.S. About half or more white Democrats say blacks are treated less fairly than whites in dealing with the police (88% vs. 43% of white Republicans); by the criminal justice system (86% vs. 39%); in hiring, pay and promotions (72% vs. 21%); when applying for a mortgage or loan (64% vs. 17%); in stores or restaurants (62% vs. 16%); when voting in elections (60% vs. 7%); and when seeking medical treatment (48% vs. 9%).

在这些不同的领域,白人民主党人和白人共和党人看待美国黑人待遇的差距在39到53个百分点之间。大约一半或更多的白人民主党人说黑人在与警察打交道时的待遇不如白人( 88%对白人共和党人占43%);刑事司法系统(86%对39%);招聘,薪酬和晋升(72%对21%);申请抵押贷款或贷款时(64%对17%);在商店或餐馆(62%对16%);在选举中投票(60%对7%);在寻求医疗时(48%对9%)。

In some of these areas, black and white Democrats express similar views, but larger shares of black Democrats say black people are treated less fairly than whites in employment situations (86%), when applying for a loan or mortgage (78%), in stores or restaurants (73%), and when seeking medical treatment (61%).

在其中一些领域,黑人和白人民主党人表达了类似的观点,但黑人民主党人的较大份额表示,在申请贷款或抵押贷款(78%)时,黑人在就业情况下的待遇不如白人(86%)。商店或餐馆(73%),以及寻求医疗(61%)。

Most Americans, including similar shares of whites and blacks, say it’s never acceptable for a white person to use the N-word

大多数美国人,包括白人和黑人的相似份额,都说白人使用N字是绝对不可接受的

Seven-in-ten U.S. adults say they, personally, think it’s never acceptable for a white person to use the N-word; 13% say this is rarely acceptable and about one-in-ten say it is always (3%) or sometimes (6%) acceptable for a white person to use the N-word. Roughly seven-in-ten whites and blacks say this is never acceptable.

十分之七的美国成年人表示,他们个人认为白人使用N字是绝对不可接受的; 13%的人表示这种情况很少被接受,大约十分之一的人表示白人使用N字总是(3%)或有时(6%)可以接受。大约七分之一的白人和黑人说这绝不是可以接受的。

A smaller share of Hispanics (58%) say it’s never acceptable for a white person to use the N-word, but this is driven in part by the relatively large share of foreign-born Hispanics (28%) who say they are not sure whether it’s acceptable for a white person to use the N-word. Among Hispanics born in the U.S., 67% say this is never acceptable.

较小比例的西班牙裔美国人(58%)表示白人使用N字是不可接受的,但这部分是由于外国出生的西班牙裔美国人(28%)相对较大的一部分人表示他们不确定白人是否可以使用N字。在美国出生的西班牙裔人中,有67%的人认为这是不可接受的。

When it comes to black people using the N-word, about four-in-ten adults – including similar shares of blacks and whites – say they, personally, think it is never acceptable; 15% say it is rarely acceptable and about a third say it’s always (13%) or sometimes (20%) acceptable for black people to use the N-word.

对于使用N字的黑人来说,大约四分之一的成年人 - 包括类似的黑人和白人 - 说他们个人认为这是永远不可接受的; 15%的受访者表示很少能够接受,而且约有三分之一的受访者认为黑人使用N字一直是(13%)或有时(20%)。

Most black adults say being black is extremely or very important to how they think about themselves

大多数黑人成年人说黑人对他们如何看待自己非常或非常重要

Blacks are more likely than Hispanics or Asians – and much more likely than whites – to say that their race is central to their identity. About three-quarters of black adults say being black is extremely (52%) or very (22%) important to how they think of themselves; 59% of Hispanics and 54% of Asians say being Hispanic or Asian, respectively, is at least very important to their overall identity, with about three-in-ten in each group saying it’s extremely important. In contrast, just 15% of whites say being white is very or extremely important to how they think of themselves; about two-thirds say it’s either only a little important (18%) or not important at all (47%).

黑人比西班牙人或亚洲人更容易 - 而且比白人更可能 - 说他们的种族对他们的身份至关重要。大约四分之三的黑人成年人认为黑人对他们自己的想法非常重要(52%)或非常(22%); 59%的西班牙裔和54%的亚洲人分别说他们是西班牙裔或亚洲人,至少对他们的整体身份非常重要,每组中大约三分之一的人说这是非常重要的。相比之下,只有15%的白人认为白人对他们自己的看法非常或非常重要;大约三分之二的人说它要么有点重要(18%),要么根本不重要(47%)。

Whites and blacks younger than 30 are less likely than their older counterparts to say their race is at least very important to their overall identity. Some 64% of black adults ages 18 to 29 say being black is at least very important, compared with roughly three-quarters or more among older age groups. And while relatively few whites across age groups say being white is central to how they think about themselves, whites younger than 30 are among the least likely to say so.

年龄小于30岁的白人和黑人不太可能比年长的同龄人说他们的种族对他们的整体身份至少非常重要。大约64%的18至29岁的黑人成年人认为黑人至少非常重要,而老年人群中大约四分之三或更多。尽管年龄组中相对较少的白人说白人是他们如何看待自己的核心,但30岁以下的白人是最不可能这么说的。

Among Hispanics, those born abroad are more likely than those born in the U.S. to say being Hispanic is at least very important to how they think of themselves (65% vs. 52%).

在西班牙裔中,出生在国外的人比在美国出生的人更有可能说西班牙裔对他们自己的看法至少非常重要(65%对52%)。

Majorities of blacks, Hispanics and Asians say they have experienced discrimination because of their race or ethnicity

大多数黑人,西班牙裔和亚洲人表示他们因种族或族裔而遭受歧视

About three-quarters of blacks (76%) and Asians (75%) – and 58% of Hispanics – say they have experienced discrimination or have been treated unfairly because of their race or ethnicity at least from time to time. In contrast, about two-thirds of whites (67%) say they’ve never experienced this.

大约四分之三的黑人(76%)和亚洲人(75%) - 以及58%的西班牙裔美国人 - 说他们经历过歧视,或者因为种族或种族至少不时受到不公平对待。相比之下,大约三分之二的白人(67%)表示他们从未经历过这种情况。

When asked about specific situations they may have experienced because of their race or ethnicity, blacks are considerably more likely than whites, Hispanics or Asians to say that people have acted as if they were suspicious of them; people have acted as if they thought they weren’t smart; they have been treated unfairly by an employer in hiring,  pay or promotion; or they have been unfairly stopped by police. Hispanics and Asians are more likely than whites to say each of these have happened to them.

当被问及他们因种族或族裔而可能遇到的具体情况时,黑人比白人,西班牙裔或亚洲人更有可能说人们表现得像对他们一样怀疑;人们表现得好像他们认为自己并不聪明;雇主在雇用,支付或晋升时受到不公平对待;或者他们被警察不公平地阻止了。西班牙裔和亚洲人比白人更有可能说这些都发生在他们身上。

Asians are more likely than any other group to say they have been subject to slurs or jokes because of their race or ethnicity. In turn, more whites than blacks, Hispanics or Asians say people have assumed they were prejudiced or racist; 45% of whites have had this experience.

亚洲人比任何其他群体更有可能说他们因种族或种族而遭受辱骂或笑话。反过来,比黑人,西班牙裔或亚洲人更多的白人说人们认为他们是偏见或种族主义者; 45%的白人有这种经历。

For Hispanics, skin color is associated with experiences with discrimination

对于西班牙裔人来说,肤色与歧视的经历有关

The survey asked black and Hispanic respondents to identify the skin tone that best resembles their own using a modified version of the Massey-Martin scale. A multivariate analysis suggests that Hispanics with darker skin tones are more likely than those with lighter skin to say they have ever experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly because of their race or ethnicity. Darker skin color is also associated with a higher likelihood among Hispanics of saying that – because of their race or ethnicity – people have acted as if they were suspicious of them, people have acted as if they thought they weren’t smart, they have been treated unfairly in employment situations, they have subject to slurs or jokes, and that they have feared for their safety.

该调查要求黑人和西班牙裔受访者使用改良版Massey-Martin量表来识别最适合自己的肤色。一项多变量分析表明,皮肤较深的西班牙裔人比皮肤较浅的人更容易说他们曾因歧视或因种族或族裔而受到不公平对待。较深的皮肤颜色也与西班牙裔人中更高的可能性相关 - 因为他们的种族或种族 - 人们表现得好像他们怀疑他们,人们表现得好像他们认为他们不聪明,他们一直在就业情况下受到不公平对待,他们受到辱骂或笑话,并且担心他们的安全。

Among blacks, those with darker skin tones are more likely to say they have experienced racial discrimination generally, but skin color is not necessarily associated with having faced specific situations because of their race or ethnicity. In fact, for blacks, being male and having higher levels of education are more consistently associated with the specific forms of discrimination asked about in the survey.

在黑人中,肤色较深的人更可能会说他们一般都经历过种族歧视,但肤色并不一定与因种族或种族而面对特定情况有关。事实上,对于黑人来说,男性和受过更高教育的人更多地与调查中提到的特定歧视形式相关联。

A note about the Asian sample

关于亚洲样本的说明

This survey includes an oversample of Asian respondents, for a total sample size of 355 Asians. The sample includes English-speaking Asians only and, therefore, may not be representative of the overall U.S. Asian population (64% of our weighted Asian sample was born in another country, compared with 78% of the U.S. Asian adult population overall).

该调查包括亚洲受访者的过度抽样,总样本量为355亚洲人。该样本仅包括讲英语的亚洲人,因此可能无法代表整个美国亚洲人口(我们加权亚洲样本的64%出生在另一个国家,而美国亚裔成年人口总数的78%)。

Despite this limitation, it is important to report the views of Asians on race relations and racial inequality, as well as their personal experiences with racial discrimination, as the U.S. Asian population is growing faster than any other major racial or ethnic group. Measuring the attitudes of Asians on these topics is an important piece in understanding the state of race in America today.

尽管存在这种局限性,但重要的是要报告亚洲人对种族关系和种族不平等的看法,以及他们在种族歧视方面的个人经历,因为美国亚洲人口增长速度超过任何其他主要种族或族裔群体。衡量亚洲人对这些主题的态度是了解当今美国种族状况的重要一环。

As always, Asians’ responses are incorporated into the general population figures throughout this report; data are weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population as a whole. Asians are shown as a separate group when the question was asked of the full sample. Because of the relatively small sample size and a reduction in precision due to weighting, results are not shown separately for Asians for questions that were only asked of a random half of respondents (Form 1/Form 2) or some filtered questions. We are also not able to analyze Asian respondents by demographic categories, such as gender, age or education.

与往常一样,亚洲人的回应在本报告中纳入了一般人口数据;数据被加权以代表整个美国成年人口。当询问完整样本的问题时,亚洲人被显示为一个单独的组。由于样本量相对较小而且由于加权导致精确度降低,因此仅针对随机半数受访者(表格1 /表格2)或某些过滤问题的问题,亚洲人的结果并未单独显示。我们也无法按人口统计类别(如性别,年龄或教育程度)分析亚洲受访者。

Terminology

术语

References to whites, blacks and Asians include only those who are non-Hispanic and identify as only one race. Hispanics are of any race.

白人,黑人和亚洲人的参考仅包括那些非西班牙裔并且仅认定为一种种族的人。西班牙裔是任何种族。

All references to party affiliation include those who lean toward that party: Republicans include those who identify as Republicans and independents who say they lean toward the Republican Party, and Democrats include those who identify as Democrats and independents who say they lean toward the Democratic Party.

所有关于党派关系的提法都包括那些倾向于党派的人:共和党人包括那些认定他们倾向于共和党的共和党人和独立党人,民主党人包括那些认为民主党人和独立人士,他们说他们倾向于民主党。

References to college graduates or people with a college degree comprise those with a bachelor’s degree or more. “Some college” includes those with an associate degree and those who attended college but did not obtain a degree. “High school” refers to those who have a high school diploma or its equivalent, such as a General Education Development (GED) certificate.

对大学毕业生或具有大学学位的人的参考包括具有学士学位或更多学位的人。 “一些大学”包括那些具有副学士学位和那些上大学但没有获得学位的人。 “高中”是指具有高中文凭或同等学历的人,如通识教育发展(GED)证书。

Foreign born refers to people born outside of the United States, Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen, regardless of legal status.

外国出生的人是指出生在美国,波多黎各或其他美国领土之外的人,父母均不是美国公民,无论其身份如何。

U.S. born refers to individuals who are U.S. citizens at birth, including people born in the United States, Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories, as well as those born elsewhere to parents who were U.S. citizens.

美国出生的人是指出生时为美国公民的个人,包括在美国,波多黎各或其他美国领土出生的人,以及出生在美国公民父母其他地方的人。

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