Society: How can policymakers help the struggling middle class?

社会:政策制定者如何帮助陷入困境的中产阶级?

2019/04/15 23:14
对照中文英文原文
关于社会和福利问题的数据和研究,包括家庭和儿童,性别平等,GINI系数,福祉,减贫,人力资本和不平等。政府需要做更多工作来支持那些努力维持经济的中产阶级家庭根据经合组织的一份新报告,体重和生活方式因其停滞不前的收入无法跟上住房和教育成本上升的影响。

Governments need to do more to support middle-class households who are struggling to maintain their economic weight and lifestyles as their stagnating incomes fail to keep up with the rising costs of housing and education, according to a new OECD report.

根据经合组织的一份新报告,政府需要做更多工作来支持那些正在努力维持其经济影响力和生活方式的中产阶级家庭,因为他们的收入停滞不前,无法跟上住房和教育成本的上涨。

Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class says that the middle class has shrunk in most OECD countries as it has become more difficult for younger generations to make it to the middle class, defined as earning between 75% and 200% of the median national income. While almost 70% of baby boomers were part of middle-income households in their twenties, only 60% of millennials are today.

压力之下:大多数经合组织国家的中产阶级已经缩水,因为年轻一代越来越难以进入中产阶级,定义为收入在国民收入中位数的75%到200%之间。虽然近20%的婴儿潮一代是20多岁的中等收入家庭的一部分,但今天只有60%的千禧一代。

The economic influence of the middle class has also dropped sharply. Across the OECD area, except for a few countries, middle incomes are barely higher today than they were ten years ago, increasing by just 0.3% per year, a third less than the average income of the richest 10%.

中产阶级的经济影响也急剧下降。在经合组织地区,除少数几个国家外,今天的中等收入几乎不比十年前高,每年仅增长0.3%,比最富裕的10%的平均收入少三分之一。

“Today the middle class looks increasingly like a boat in rocky waters,” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, launching the report in New York with Luis Felipe Lopéz-Calva, Assistant Secretary General, Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations Development Programme. “Governments must listen to people’s concerns and protect and promote middle class living standards. This will help drive inclusive and sustainable growth and create a more cohesive and stable social fabric.”

经合组织秘书长安吉尔·古里亚说:“今天,中产阶级看起来越来越像一艘在多岩石水域的船只。”纽约联合国开发计划署拉丁美洲和加勒比地区助理秘书长路易斯·费利佩·洛佩斯 - 卡尔瓦在纽约发表报告说。 。 “各国政府必须倾听人们的关切,保护和促进中产阶级的生活水平。这将有助于推动包容性和可持续增长,并创造一个更具凝聚力和稳定的社会结构。“

Gabriela Ramos, OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa overseeing the Organisation’s work on Inclusive Growth, presented in more details the main findings of the report, saying “our analysis delivers a bleak picture and a call for action. The middle class is at the core of a cohesive, thriving society. We need to address their concerns regarding living costs, fairness and uncertainty.”

经合组织参谋长和夏尔巴监督本组织关于包容性增长的工作的加布里埃拉拉莫斯更详细地介绍了报告的主要结论,他说:“我们的分析提供了一幅黯淡的画面和行动呼吁。中产阶级是一个有凝聚力,蓬勃发展的社会的核心。我们需要解决他们对生活成本,公平和不确定性的担忧。“

The cost of a middle class lifestyle has increased faster than inflation. Housing, for example, makes up the largest single spending item for middle-income households, at around one third of disposable income, up from a quarter in the 1990s. House prices have been growing three times faster than household median income over the last two decades.

中产阶级生活方式的成本增长速度快于通货膨胀。例如,住房是中等收入家庭最大的单一支出项目,约占可支配收入的三分之一,高于1990年代的四分之一。在过去二十年中,房价增长速度是家庭收入中位数的三倍。

More than one in five middle-income households spend more than they earn and over-indebtedness is higher for them than for both low-income and high-income households. In addition, labour market prospects have become increasingly uncertain: one in six middle-income workers are in jobs that are at high risk of automation, compared to one in five low-income and one in ten high-income workers.

超过五分之一的中等收入家庭的支出高于他们的收入,而且他们的负债高于低收入和高收入家庭。此外,劳动力市场前景变得越来越不确定:六分之一的中等收入工人从事自动化高风险的工作,而五分之一的低收入工人和十分之一的高收入工人则处于自动化的高风险工作。

To help the middle class, a comprehensive action plan is needed, according to the OECD. Governments should improve access to high-quality public services and ensure better social protection coverage. To tackle cost of living issues, policies should encourage the supply of affordable housing. Targeted grants, financial support for loans and tax relief for home buyers would help lower middle-income households. In countries with acute levels of housing-related debt, mortgage relief would help overburdened households get back on track.

根据经合组织的说法,为了帮助中产阶级,需要制定一项综合行动计划。政府应改善获得高质量公共服务的机会,并确保更好地保护社会。为解决生活费问题,政策应鼓励提供负担得起的住房。有针对性的补助金,贷款的财政支持和购房者的税收减免将有助于降低中等收入家庭。在房屋相关债务严重程度较高的国家,抵押贷款减免将帮助负担过重的家庭重新走上正轨。

As temporary or unstable jobs - often offering lower wages and job security - increasingly replace traditional middle-class jobs, more investment is needed in vocational education and training systems. Social insurance and collective bargaining coverage for non-standard workers, such as part-time or temporary employees or self-employed, should be extended.

由于临时或不稳定的工作 - 往往提供较低的工资和工作保障 - 越来越多地取代传统的中产阶级工作,职业教育和培训系统需要更多的投资。应扩大非标准工人(如兼职或临时雇员或自营职业者)的社会保险和集体谈判保险。

Finally, to foster fairness of the socio-economic system, policies need to consider shifting the tax burden from labour income to income from capital and capital gains, property and inheritance, as well as making income taxes more progressive and fair.

最后,为了促进社会经济系统的公平性,政策需要考虑将税收负担从劳动收入转移到资本和资本收益,财产和继承收入,以及使所得税更加进步和公平。

Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class is the latest in a series of OECD reports that have documented over the past decade how inequalities have increased in our societies, making it harder for many citizens to make ends meet.

压力之下:挤压中产阶级是经合组织一系列报告中的最新报告,这些报告在过去十年中记录了我们社会中不平等现象的增加,使许多公民难以维持生计。

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