For OEMs in the United States, the aftermarket is fertile ground

对于美国的原始设备制造商来说,售后市场是肥沃的

2019/05/01 10:19
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对照中文英文原文
为了获得农业和建筑业的价值,重型设备OEM必须在四个方面进行创新。

Like everyone else, original equipment manufacturers are moving to address their customers’ needs amid sweeping technological change. In the agriculture and construction industries, for instance, heavy equipment OEMs are providing new and different types of solutions.

与其他所有人一样,原始设备制造商正在努力通过全面的技术变革来满足客户的需求。例如,在农业和建筑行业,重型设备OEM正在提供新的和不同类型的解决方案。

Customers in these two industries have traditionally been digital laggards when compared with customers in sectors such as mining and oil and gas. Farmers long monitored their crops by walking their fields. Contractors used manual checklists to track progress at construction sites.

与采矿,石油和天然气等行业的客户相比,这两个行业的客户传统上一直是数字落后者。农民长期通过走田来监控作物。承包商使用人工检查表来跟踪施工现场的进度。

More recently, however, agriculture and construction customers have embraced technology solutions provided by next-generation OEMs. Farmers are experimenting with apps and drones to follow field progress and harvests. And contractors are starting to monitor equipment and workforces on their phones.

然而,最近,农业和建筑业客户已经接受了下一代OEM提供的技术解决方案。农民正在试验应用程序和无人机,以跟踪现场进展和收获。承包商开始在他们的手机上监控设备和劳动力。

In a survey that McKinsey and the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM) conducted in 2017, agriculture and construction customers told us they trust OEMs the most to provide them with these new technologies (high-tech companies and component suppliers ranked a close second). We also found that OEMs with service arms have twice the earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of peers that don’t.

在麦肯锡和设备制造商协会(AEM)于2017年进行的一项调查中,农业和建筑业客户告诉我们,他们最信任OEM,为他们提供这些新技术(高科技公司和元件供应商排名第二)。我们还发现,拥有服务部门的原始设备制造商的利息和税前利润(EBIT)是不同于此的同行的两倍。

Despite these findings, construction and agriculture OEMs are not flourishing in aftermarket services—their penetration rates are far below the 75 percent seen in industries such as data storage and wind turbines. This competitive landscape presents an opportunity for OEMs, particularly in aftermarket services and solutions—an area that can provide a less cyclical, more sustainable source of cash, which, in turn, can boost profitability and growth.

尽管有这些调查结果,但建筑和农业原始设备制造商并未在售后服务方面蓬勃发展 - 其渗透率远低于数据存储和风力涡轮机等行业的75%。这种竞争格局为OEM提供了机会,特别是在售后服务和解决方案领域 - 这个领域可以提供更少周期性,更可持续的现金来源,从而提高盈利能力和增长。

To understand the OEM-customer decision journey in the aftermarket, McKinsey and AEM recently teamed up again to survey almost 1,300 contractors and farmers across the United States about how OEMs can better meet their needs.1 The survey revealed that contractors and farmers are satisfied in many areas but they continue to experience significant pain points in equipment usage and maintenance. These include nontransparent pricing, high operating and repair costs, and unresponsive sales reps, dealers, and technicians.

为了解售后市场的OEM客户决策历程,麦肯锡和AEM最近再次合作,调查了美国近1,300家承包商和农民如何更好地满足他们的需求.1调查显示,承包商和农民满意许多领域,但他们继续在设备使用和维护方面遇到重大痛点。这些包括不透明的定价,高昂的运营和维修成本,以及反应迟钝的销售代表,经销商和技术人员。

Ag and construction equipment customers say sales reps truly care about them. “It’s more of ‘I wanted to let you know for your own benefit’ than a super salesy pitch,” one farmer told us.

Ag和建筑设备客户表示销售代表真正关心他们。 “这更像是'我想让你知道为了自己的利益',而不是超级销售,”一位农民告诉我们。

Agriculture and construction OEMs that want to improve their aftermarket sales must offer more innovative products and services—and sell and service them differently. We looked at other industries, including automotive, industrial services, and aerospace, that are using innovative tech solutions in aftermarket services to see what lessons their experiences could offer.

希望改善售后市场销售的农业和建筑OEM必须提供更多创新产品和服务,并以不同方式销售和服务。我们研究了其他行业,包括汽车,工业服务和航空航天,他们在售后服务中使用创新技术解决方案,以了解他们的经验可以提供哪些课程。

Four themes stood out: pursuing new business models to reduce maintenance and operating costs, mastering the digital channel to engage customers, offering customers connected solutions within an aftermarket-dealer ecosystem, and using new technology to increase the effectiveness of service technicians.

四个主题脱颖而出:追求新的商业模式以降低维护和运营成本,掌握数字渠道以吸引客户,在售后经销商生态系统中为客户提供连接的解决方案,并使用新技术提高服务技术人员的效率。

This article offers examples of how OEMs that pursue these solutions could stand a better chance of attracting and retaining digital-hungry customers.

本文提供了一些示例,说明采用这些解决方案的OEM如何能够更好地吸引和留住渴望数字化的客户。

The aftermarket diagnosis

售后诊断

Exhibit 1

图表1

To glean how customers’ experiences in the parts aftermarket can be improved, it is first important to note what they feel is going well. Respondents tell us they believe sales reps in the OEM channel (authorized dealers and service centers) are extremely knowledgeable about equipment. And they believe it is easy to get sales reps’ attention and time.

为了收集客户在零件售后市场中的体验如何得到改善,首先要注意他们认为哪些方面进展顺利。受访者告诉我们,他们认为OEM渠道(授权经销商和服务中心)的销售代表对设备非常了解。他们认为很容易获得销售代表的关注和时间。

As one farmer notes, “Dealer sales reps always make the time when you need to consult them.” And respondents feel like sales reps truly care about them when they have questions about products or services. As one farmer puts it, “It’s more of ‘I wanted to let you know for your own benefit’ than a super salesy pitch.”

正如一位农民所说,“经销商销售代表总是在你需要咨询他们的时候。”受访者认为销售代表在对产品或服务有疑问时真正关心他们。正如一位农民所说的那样,“更多的是'我想让你知道为了自己的利益',而不是超级销售。”

However, the journey could be improved in several key areas. The first relates to operating and maintenance costs: 67 percent of farmers and 52 percent of contractors say the cost of maintaining equipment is their top problem (Exhibit 1).

但是,可以在几个关键领域改善旅程。第一个涉及运营和维护成本:67%的农民和52%的承包商表示维护设备的成本是他们的首要问题(图1)。

Respondents also express a surprisingly high level of frustration with long lead times (Exhibit 2). Among farmers, half say it takes too long for a technician to arrive, 29 percent say it takes too long for a dealer to respond to a request, and 21 percent say they don’t have a way to check for an available repair service. The level of frustration with dealer-response time is actually higher for contractors, at 39 percent, than it is for farmers.

受访者还表示,由于交货时间较长,令人惊讶的高度受挫(图表2)。在农民中,有一半人说技术人员到达需要的时间太长,29%的人表示经销商回应请求需要很长时间,而21%的人表示他们没有办法检查可用的维修服务。对于承包商而言,经销商响应时间的挫败感实际上更高,为39%,而不是农民。

Exhibit 2

图表2

Going outside the OEM channel

走出OEM渠道

Customers have questions about the technical capabilities of OEMs’ channel partners. Almost half of the respondents, both farmers and contractors, tell us that technicians were not able to fix their problems the first time.

客户对OEM渠道合作伙伴的技术能力存有疑问。几乎一半的受访者,无论是农民还是承包商,都告诉我们技术人员第一次无法解决问题。

When customers are dissatisfied, they go outside the OEM channel, to independent service centers and others, after warranty (Exhibit 3). Our survey finds that, after warranty, 46 percent of farmers go outside the OEM channel, including doing repairs in-house; that number is even larger for contractors, at 64 percent. That represents a significant lost opportunity for OEMs, based on not just lost sales but also lost customer data. In a nutshell, it reduces OEMs’ ability to shape the customer journey.

当客户不满意时,他们会在保修后走出OEM渠道,到独立服务中心和其他人(图表3)。我们的调查发现,在保修期后,46%的农民走出OEM渠道,包括在内部进行维修;承包商的这个数字甚至更大,达到64%。这代表着OEM的重大失去机会,不仅基于销售损失而且客户数据丢失。简而言之,它降低了原始设备制造商塑造客户旅程的能力。

Exhibit 3

图表3

When we dig deeper into why farmers go outside the OEM channel, cost is the biggest reason, at almost two-thirds, followed by the downtime caused by taking machinery to a dealer, at 39 percent (Exhibit 4). It is a bit more complicated with contractors. They seek out other channels because of cost, but more contractors than farmers see those avenues as more convenient and faster to respond than OEM channels are.

当我们更深入地了解为什么农民走出OEM渠道时,成本是最大的原因,几乎是三分之二,其次是将机械设备交给经销商造成的停机时间为39%(图表4)。承包商的情况有点复杂。由于成本原因,他们寻求其他渠道,但是比农民更多的承包商认为这些渠道比OEM渠道更方便,响应更快。

Exhibit 4

图表4

A particularly instructive component of our survey has to do with younger customers (aged 18 to 35), who are three times more likely than their older counterparts to go outside the OEM channel for repairs (Exhibit 5). They tell us their biggest frustration is that repairs and service take too long. As a group, they demand more convenience and are more time sensitive when it comes to repairs. They are also more than twice as likely as older customers (aged 50 and older) to look online for third-party channels for repairs. Going forward, solutions for satisfying younger customers should focus on convenience and interaction through digital channels.

我们调查的一个特别有益的组成部分与年龄较小的客户(年龄在18岁至35岁之间)有关,他们比年长客户更有可能在OEM渠道之外进行维修(图表5)。他们告诉我们他们最大的挫败感是维修和服务需要太长时间。作为一个群体,他们需要更多的便利,并且在维修时更加时间敏感。他们也是老客户(50岁及以上)在线查看第三方渠道进行维修的可能性的两倍多。展望未来,满足年轻客户的解决方案应该专注于通过数字渠道提供便利和互动。

Exhibit 5

图表5

Lost opportunities

失去了机会

If we step back and look at the aftermarket today, about one-third of farmers and contractors, in the aggregate, do their business outside the OEM channel (there is a difference between the groups, with farmers at about 20 percent and contractors at about 40 percent). This group represents a significant lost revenue opportunity for OEMs, because they essentially lose track of customers.

如果我们退一步看看今天的售后市场,大约有三分之一的农民和承包商在OEM渠道之外开展业务(各集团之间存在差异,农民约为20%,承包商约为40%)。这一群体代表了OEM的巨大收入损失机会,因为他们基本上失去了对客户的追踪。

OEMs take heed: younger customers (aged 18 to 35) told us they are looking for convenience, and they are not afraid to go elsewhere to find it.

原始设备制造商注意:年轻客户(18至35岁)告诉我们他们正在寻找便利,而且他们不怕去其他地方找到它。

What’s more, if automotive trends apply to the construction and agriculture environment, the share of online parts sales could double over the next five years (Exhibit 6). If we spin that forward, the one-third share of parts sold outside the OEM channel today will become closer to one-half—a significant loss for OEMs.

更重要的是,如果汽车趋势适用于建筑和农业环境,在线零件销售的份额可能会在未来五年翻一番(图表6)。如果我们向前推进,那么今天在OEM渠道之外销售的零件的三分之一将变得更接近原始设备制造商的一半重大损失。

Exhibit 6

图表6

Capturing market share

捕获市场份额

Given current conditions in the aftermarket, what can OEMs do to capture all this value, both potential and lost? Here are four actions that other industries have taken to solve customer frustrations that can be applied to agriculture and construction OEMs.

鉴于售后市场目前的情况,原始设备制造商可以做些什么来捕捉所有这些价值,无论是潜在的还是失去的?以下是其他行业为解决客户受挫而采取的四项行动,可应用于农业和建筑OEM。

Pursue new business models

追求新的商业模式

To reduce maintenance and operating costs for customers, it is crucial that OEMs look for new business models.

为了降低客户的维护和运营成本,OEM寻找新的业务模式至关重要。

A good example of such innovative thinking is the myAudi functions-on-demand platform. The single technology package for Audi vehicles being introduced in 2019 reduces a lot of complexity. Customers can use an app on their mobile devices to turn on features and service options whenever they want. The app allows owners to manage everything from vehicle Wi-Fi and entertainment features to driver assistance. Vehicle owners get charged only for the features they use. This full connectivity is the type of convenience and digital interaction that younger customers, in particular, are going to come to expect in the future.

这种创新思维的一个很好的例子是myAudi按需功能平台。为2019年推出的奥迪车辆的单一技术包减少了很多复杂性。客户可以使用移动设备上的应用程序随时打开功能和服务选项。该应用程序允许所有者管理从车辆Wi-Fi和娱乐功能到驾驶员协助的所有内容。车主只会根据他们使用的功能收费。这种完全连接性是特别是年轻客户将来会期待的便利性和数字交互的类型。

Construction and agriculture OEMs are starting to pursue connected business models, though not quite at the same level of complexity. Equipment is increasingly manufactured with built-in sensors and connectivity (for example, driver monitoring and preventive-maintenance alerts) through the OEM brand’s connectivity suite and sold with a free trial or as standard on new equipment.

建筑和农业原始设备制造商开始寻求相互关联的商业模式,尽管并不是完全相同的复杂程度。通过OEM品牌的连接套件,设备越来越多地通过内置传感器和连接(例如,驾驶员监控和预防性维护警报)制造,并通过免费试用或作为新设备的标准出售。

OEMs should consider ways to integrate more optionality into their offerings. They can give customers the option of choosing features—for example, switching a subscription on and off with seasonality, like yield-monitoring features for farmers. Or, having customers pay only for functions relevant to their immediate business needs, like load monitoring for contractors.

OEM应考虑将更多可选性集成到其产品中的方法。它们可以为客户提供选择功能的选项 - 例如,通过季节性开启和关闭订阅,例如为农民提供产量监控功能。或者,让客户只为与其直接业务需求相关的功能付费,例如承包商的负载监控。

Master the digital channel

掌握数字频道

To engage customers who are now reliant on digital products, OEMs should offer digital solutions not only to sell parts but also to relieve customer pain points in the aftermarket.

为了吸引那些现在依赖数字产品的客户,OEM应该提供数字解决方案,不仅可以销售零件,还可以减轻售后市场中的客户痛点。

If we look at Amazon’s B2B side, we can see that over the past five years, the number of SKUs listed has grown to close to two million. And the big disruption is yet to come. Amazon is now experimenting with last-mile delivery to ensure that it can deliver parts to customers within two hours; in some cases, the timeline could be shorter than that. Amazon’s experimentation with drones is well known, but it is also looking at floating warehouses, a concept that once seemed fanciful, but no more.

如果我们看一下亚马逊的B2B方面,我们可以看到,在过去五年中,所列出的SKU数量已经增长到接近200万。而且大的破坏还未到来。亚马逊正在尝试最后一英里的交付,以确保它可以在两小时内向客户交付零件;在某些情况下,时间表可能比这短。亚马逊对无人机的试验是众所周知的,但它也在关注浮动仓库,这个概念曾经看起来很奇特,但已经没有了。

Many OEMs currently maintain their own online-parts databases that allow customers to order the parts they need and have them shipped to local dealers or to them directly. However, pain points in aftermarket parts are often left unresolved because of slow shipping speeds or high shipment costs. Some global equipment OEMs have upgraded their online-parts database to offer free ground shipping, as well as options for next-day or second-day air.

许多OEM目前维护自己的在线零件数据库,允许客户订购他们需要的零件,并将它们直接运送到当地经销商或他们。然而,由于运输速度慢或运输成本高,售后零件的痛点往往得不到解决。一些全球设备OEM已经升级其在线零件数据库,以提供免费地面运输,以及第二天或第二天空运的选项。

Create more transparency between customers and dealers

在客户和经销商之间创造更多透明度

Customers are looking for a seamless end-to-end transaction that’s more transparent than anything offered before. Other industries have introduced connected solutions that provide such transparency while also ensuring high-quality output. For example, a large-truck OEM offers a fleet-repair mobile app that seamlessly coordinates a service appointment the moment a vehicle issue is detected. Customers receive notifications on issue severity levels as well as service recommendations. They can quickly schedule appointments and receive price estimates from the closest dealers with the necessary parts.

客户正在寻找一种比之前提供的任何产品都更加透明的无缝端到端交易。其他行业已经引入了连接解决方案,提供这种透明度,同时确保高质量的输出。例如,大型卡车OEM提供车队维修移动应用程序,可在检测到车辆问题时无缝协调服务预约。客户会收到有关问题严重性级别以及服务建议的通知。他们可以快速安排预约,并从最近的经销商处获得必要部件的价格估算。

Once an appointment is scheduled, the dealer receives details on the specific vehicle issue. After the vehicle is dropped off, the app offers status notifications for each stage, including checked in, in service, awaiting approval, and ready for pickup. When the transaction is over, the app logs the maintenance in its historical record.

一旦安排预约,经销商就会收到有关特定车辆问题的详细信息。在车辆下车后,应用程序会为每个阶段提供状态通知,包括已登记,正在服务,等待批准以及准备取件。当事务结束时,应用程序会将维护记录在其历史记录中。

OEMs can also introduce apps or web portals that allow customers to reach dealers more easily, check for service availability, and track technician wait times and progress. Equipment dealers often offer web portals through which customers can request a service appointment, but even this requires waiting for dealers to figure out their capacity and respond accordingly. A service-time estimator would be a step in the right direction for OEMs’ aftermarket-service arms to address customer frustrations with dealer wait time and transparency.

OEM还可以引入应用程序或门户网站,使客户能够更轻松地联系经销商,检查服务可用性,并跟踪技术人员的等待时间和进度。设备经销商通常提供门户网站,客户可以通过该门户网站请求服务预约,但即使这样,也需要等待经销商确定其容量并做出相应的响应。服务时间估算器将朝着OEM的售后服务部门的正确方向迈出一步,以解决客户对经销商等待时间和透明度的挫败感。

Improve technician guidance

提高技术人员的指导

Some industries are using virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) to help service technicians identify problems and get repair guidance. For example, the elevator manufacturer thyssenkrupp has technicians using HoloLens glasses, an AR experience that allows them to identify problems ahead of jobs and then do repairs on site, including while getting remote guidance. The technology has increased efficiency, reducing the average service-call length by a factor of four.

一些行业正在使用虚拟现实(VR)和增强现实(AR)来帮助服务技术人员识别问题并获得维修指导。例如,电梯制造商thyssenkrupp的技术人员使用HoloLens眼镜,AR体验使他们能够在工作之前发现问题,然后在现场进行维修,包括在获得远程指导时。该技术提高了效率,将平均服务呼叫长度减少了四倍。

By using VR technology to provide technicians with more relevant, real-world repair scenarios and training and AR technology to provide guidance to technicians during the repair process, equipment OEMs could ensure their technicians get repairs right the first time.

通过使用VR技术为技术人员提供更相关的实际维修方案和培训以及AR技术,以便在维修过程中为技术人员提供指导,设备OEM可以确保他们的技术人员在第一时间得到正确维修。

Some equipment providers have already implemented VR technology as a training tool for operator certification. The training incorporates a suite of VR equipment, including cranes, forklifts, backhoes, and skid-steer loaders, into a simulation that offers hands-on training that mirrors the operator experience on a construction or industrial site. The training takes place in a safe and controlled environment.

一些设备提供商已经将VR技术作为运营商认证的培训工具。该培训将一套VR设备(包括起重机,叉车,反铲挖土机和滑移装载机)整合到一个模拟中,提供实际操作培训,反映了建筑或工业现场的操作员体验。培训在安全可控的环境中进行。

The “how”: Tech transformation of your aftermarket

“如何”:您的售后市场的技术转型

In McKinsey’s work helping industries undergo tech-enabled transformations, we have discovered five levers companies can use to hone their strategies. For OEMs, three of those are crucial to addressing customer pain points and capturing value in the aftermarket: innovating and developing products and services (pursuing new business models), selling (mastering the digital channel), and servicing (creating an ecosystem with dealers and/or the industry and improving technician capabilities).

在麦肯锡帮助行业进行技术转型的工作中,我们发现了五家公司可以用来磨练其战略的杠杆。对于原始设备制造商而言,其中三个对于解决客户痛点和在售后市场中获取价值至关重要:创新和开发产品和服务(追求新的商业模式),销售(掌握数字渠道)和服务(与经销商建立生态系统和/或行业和提高技术人员的能力)。

With respect to new products and services, OEMs are starting to optimize R&D processes with tech enablement. To go further, some OEMs are monetizing connected solutions through data-enabled business models—think “pay for use” that charges customers per unit used (for example, “power by the hour”).

在新产品和服务方面,OEM正在开始通过技术支持优化研发流程。更进一步,一些原始设备制造商通过支持数据的商业模式将连接解决方案货币化 - 认为“按使用付费”为每单位使用的客户收费(例如,“按小时计算”)。

In the sales arena, OEMs could enhance presales through digital marketing and deliver a more personalized experience at dealerships, much like innovative automotive dealers have done with interactive presentations that customers can view to learn about their cars. In the servicing realm, OEMs are starting to enhance field-labor training through tech-enabled modules, like VR training simulations. But they could do more to manage customer demand by creating transparency in the aftermarket-repair process. Using a mobile repair app could offer wait-time transparency between customers and the dealer repair technician.

在销售领域,OEM可以通过数字营销增强预售,并在经销商处提供更个性化的体验,就像创新的汽车经销商已经完成了交互式演示,客户可以查看以了解他们的汽车。在服务领域,OEM正开始通过技术支持的模块(如VR培训模拟)加强现场劳动力培训。但他们可以通过在售后维修过程中创造透明度来管理客户需求。使用移动维修应用程序可以在客户和经销商维修技术人员之间提供等待时间透明度。

They could also deliver a superior customer experience by providing customers with the connected capabilities more relevant to their business needs. Much like the myAudi app functions on demand, OEMs could tailor solutions to their customers’ needs and allow them to pick and choose.

通过为客户提供与其业务需求更相关的连接功能,他们还可以提供卓越的客户体验。就像myAudi应用程序按需运行一样,OEM可以根据客户的需求定制解决方案,并允许他们挑选。

For OEMs to provide tech-enabled solutions, they must understand what the value-creation potential is and where their organizations should be relative to customer expectations in two, three, and five years. How do they offer solutions to younger customers, who are fierce about convenience? How do they work with channel partners differently to get there? How do they think about design?

对于OEM提供技术支持的解决方案,他们必须了解价值创造潜力是什么,以及他们的组织应该在两年,三年和五年内相对于客户期望的位置。他们如何为年轻客户提供解决方案?他们如何以不同方式与渠道合作伙伴合作以实现目标?他们如何看待设计?

Technology is not the constraint to answering these questions, and neither is capital. What is often missing is a commitment at the top of an organization to build these capabilities. The OEMs that can harness their ambitions and build these capabilities should be very optimistic about opportunities in the aftermarket and how they can generate value and customer loyalty over the long term.

技术不是回答这些问题的约束,也不是资本。通常缺少的是组织顶层承诺构建这些功能。能够利用其雄心并建立这些能力的原始设备制造商应该对售后市场中的机会非常乐观,以及它们如何在长期内产生价值和客户忠诚度。

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