Fuel cell and hydrogen trains: An ultra-green revolution for Europe's railroads

燃料电池和氢火车:欧洲铁路的一场超绿色革命

2019/05/17 18:53
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对照中文英文原文
FCH列车是欧洲铁路柴油列车的多功能,零排放,具有成本竞争力的替代品

Despite the green image of the largely electrified railroad system in Europe, 20 percent of traffic and around 40 percent of the mainline network is still served by diesel technology today. But this may soon change with the advent of fuel cell and hydrogen (FCH) technology – a flexible, zero-emission, potentially cost-effective replacement for diesel combustion engines. A new study commissioned by the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking and the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking finds a strong business case for introducing FCH in Europe. All that remains are a number of technical and non-technical barriers, which can be overcome by means of targeted research and innovation projects.

尽管欧洲的铁路系统以电气化为主,但今天仍有20%的交通和大约40%的干线网络使用柴油技术。但随着燃料电池和氢(FCH)技术的出现,这种情况可能很快就会发生变化。氢燃料电池和氢燃料技术是一种灵活、零排放、具有潜在成本效益的柴油内燃机替代品。Shift2Rail联合企业、燃料电池和氢联合企业委托进行的一项新研究发现,在欧洲引入FCH有很强的商业理由。剩下的就是一些技术和非技术障碍,这些障碍可以通过有针对性的研究和创新项目加以克服。

Climate change makes reducing emissions quickly and consistently a critical task. The European railroad sector must play its part here. One way it can contribute is by replacing its remaining diesel-powered fleet with FCH trains. Doing so will help the European Union reduce greenhouse gas emissions, other air contaminants and noise pollution while enabling the sector to meet the operational requirements of rail transportation.

气候变化使迅速、持续地减少排放成为一项关键任务。欧洲铁路部门必须在这方面发挥作用。它可以做的一种贡献是用FCH列车取代其剩余的柴油动力车队。这样做将有助于欧洲联盟减少温室气体排放、其他空气污染物和噪音污染,同时使该部门能够满足铁路运输的业务需求。

"FCH-powered multiple units could replace 30 percent of diesel volumes by 2030. In other words, one in five currently diesel-powered train vehicles could be powered by hydrogen." The study looks in detail at ten case studies across Europe, four focused on multiple units, three on shunters and three on mainline locomotives. It finds that FCH trains offer good technical performance with similar flexibility and versatility to diesel-powered fleets. Above all, FCH trains make economic sense on non-electrified routes of over 100 kilometers for regional passenger transport, on main line routes with low utilization (up to ten trains a day) and on last-mile delivery routes. They are cost competitive with diesel-powered trains where low-cost hydrogen production is possible, for example, in Scandinavia, where energy is cheap, or in areas where hydrogen is available as an industrial by-product. And thanks to their ability to operate for more than 18 hours without refueling and their fast refueling times, on many routes they offer significant advantages over battery-powered trains.

到2030年,以fch为动力的多台机组将取代30%的柴油。换句话说,目前五分之一的柴油火车车辆可以由氢提供动力。”该研究详细研究了欧洲各地的10个案例,其中4个集中在多个单元上,3个集中在分流器上,3个集中在干线机车上。研究发现,FCH列车具有良好的技术性能,具有与柴油动力车队相似的灵活性和通用性。最重要的是,FCH列车在100公里以上的非电气化区域客运线路、利用率低的干线线路(每天最多10列)以及最后一英里的交付线路上具有经济意义。在低成本生产氢的柴油动力火车上,例如在能源便宜的斯堪的纳维亚半岛,或者在氢作为工业副产品可用的地区,它们的成本具有竞争力。由于它们可以在不加油的情况下运行18个多小时,而且加油速度快,在很多线路上,它们都比电池驱动的列车具有明显的优势。

This combination of economic competitiveness and ecological advantages leads the authors of the study to conclude that FCH-powered multiple units – currently the most market-ready application – could replace 30 percent of diesel volumes by 2030 in a base-case scenario. Vehicles are already available on the market and a number of tenders are underway or planned, particularly in frontrunner markets in Northern and Central Europe. This will lead to new models being introduced in Europe, potentially driving exports to countries outside Europe, including North America and Southeast Asia in the short term and Russia, Japan and India in the medium term. By comparison, FCH-powered shunters and mainline locomotives will likely show relatively modest market uptake by 2030: 12 percent of overall purchasing potential for shunters and 8 percent for mainline locomotives. This is mainly due to their delayed market introduction – they are unlikely to appear before 2023 – and the need for further technological development.

这种经济竞争力和生态优势的结合使得研究的作者们得出结论,在2030年的基本情况下,以fch为动力的多台机组——目前市场上最成熟的应用——可能取代30%的柴油产量。市场上已经有了汽车,一些投标正在进行或计划中,特别是在北欧和中欧的领先市场。这将导致欧洲引入新的模式,可能在短期内推动对欧洲以外国家的出口,包括北美和东南亚,以及俄罗斯、日本和印度的中期出口。相比之下,到2030年,ch型电力分流器和干线机车的市场占有率可能相对较低:分流器占总采购潜力的12%,干线机车占8%。这主要是由于它们推迟进入市场——它们不太可能在2023年之前出现——以及进一步技术发展的需要。

The barriers faced by FCH technology are no different to any other novel technology on the cusp of large-scale deployment. The study identifies three high-priority barriers and proposes three targeted research and innovation projects to solve them. The first involves a large-scale demonstration project of 15 or more multiple units. The second is to develop five new (or retrofit ten old) shunters or mainline locomotives, including concept design, engineering and prototyping. The third project involves developing optimized hydrogen storage technology for FCH applications, including filling pressure, tank integration and cross-car connections. The total budget for these three projects is an estimated EUR 113 million. As an added benefit, completing the projects will increase product availability, unlock commercial efficiencies and provide evidence of the benefits of FCH trains – paving the way for a smooth rollout of FCH technology.

FCH技术所面临的障碍与其他处于大规模部署尖端的新技术没有什么不同。该研究确定了三个高优先级的障碍,并提出了三个有针对性的研究和创新项目来解决这些障碍。第一个涉及15个或更多个单位的大规模示范项目。二是开发五辆新的(或改造十辆旧的)分流器或干线机车,包括概念设计、工程设计和原型设计。第三个项目涉及为FCH应用开发优化的储氢技术,包括填充压力、油箱集成和跨车连接。这三个项目的预算总额估计为1.13亿欧元。作为一个额外的好处,完成这些项目将增加产品的可用性,提高商业效率,并为FCH列车的好处提供证据——为FCH技术的顺利推出铺平道路。

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