Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking

大多数美国人无法解决400美元的紧急开支——美国家庭经济和决策调查

2019/05/31 14:23
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自2013年以来,美联储开展了家庭经济和决策调查(SHED),该调查衡量美国家庭的经济福祉,并确定其财务的潜在风险。该调查包括与当前财务福利相关的一系列主题的模块,包括信贷准入和行为、储蓄、退休、经济脆弱性以及教育和学生贷款。

Executive Summary

执行摘要

This report describes the responses to the sixth annual Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking(SHED). The goal of the survey is to share the wide range of financial challenges and opportunities facing individuals and households inthe United States. For many, the findings are positive;however, areas of distress and fragility remain.The survey also reveals how households view their own financial lives and the many decisions they face,from education to retirement.

本报告描述了第六次年度家庭经济和决策调查(SHED)的结果。该调查的目的是分享美国个人和家庭面临的各种财务挑战和机遇。对于许多人来说,调查结果是积极的;然而,困境和脆弱性仍然存在。调查还揭示了家庭如何看待自己的金融生活以及从教育到退休的许多决定。

Most measures of economic well-being and financial resilience in 2018 are similar to or slightly better thanin 2017. Many families have experienced substantial gains since the survey began in 2013, in line with thenation’s ongoing economic expansion during that period. Even so, another year of economic expansion and the low national unemployment rates did little to narrow the persistent economic disparities by race, education, and geography.

2018年经济福祉和金融弹性的大多数衡量标准与2017年相似或稍好一些。自2013年调查开始以来,许多家庭经历了大幅增长,这与该时期经济的持续经济增长保持一致。即便如此,经济扩张和低失业率几乎没有缩小种族、教育和地理方面持续存在的经济差距。

A key theme in this year’s report is exploring the sources and effects of financial fragility across several domains, from employment to banking to managing expenses. Results from the survey show that many adults are financially vulnerable and would have difficulty handling an emergency expense as small as $400. In addition, volatile income and low savings can turn common experiences—such as waiting a few days for a bank deposit to be available—into a problem for some. At the same time, there is evidence of coping strategies, such as supplementing income through gig work and seeking financial support from family members.

今年报告的一个关键主题是探讨金融脆弱性在多个领域的来源和影响,从就业到银行业务到管理费用。调查结果显示,许多成年人在经济上处于弱势,难以应对400美元的紧急开支。此外,不稳定的收入和低储蓄可以使等待银行资金可用变为某些人的问题。与此同时,有证据表明,美国家庭有应对策略,例如通过打零工补充收入和寻求家庭成员的财政支持。

The survey continues to use subjective measures and self-assessments to supplement and enhance objective measures. One example is trying to understand how close the economy is to full employment. In addition to asking adults whether they are working,the survey asks if they want to work more and what impediments they see to them working. Health limitations,a lack of available work, and family obligations are often cited as reasons for not being fully employed.

调查继续使用主观措施和自我评估来补充和加强客观措施。一个例子是试图了解经济与充分就业的接近程度。除了询问成年人是否正在工作之外,该调查还询问他们是否想要更多地工作以及他们对他们工作的障碍。健康限制、缺乏可用工作和家庭义务通常被认为是未充分就业的原因。

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